|author||Sakari Ailus <firstname.lastname@example.org>||2021-02-01 10:16:03 +0100|
|committer||Mauro Carvalho Chehab <email@example.com>||2021-08-04 14:43:50 +0200|
media: Documentation: media: Improve camera sensor documentation
Modernise the documentation to make it more precise and update the use of pixel rate control and various other changes. In particular: - Use non-proportional font for file names, properties as well as controls. - The unit of the HBLANK control is pixels, not lines. - The unit of PIXEL_RATE control is pixels per second, not Hz. - Merge common requirements for CSI-2 and parallel busses. - Include all DT properties needed for assigned clocks. - Fix referencing the link rate control. - SMIA driver's new name is CCS driver. - The PIXEL_RATE control denotes pixel rate on the pixel array on camera sensors. Do not suggest it is used to tell the maximum pixel rate on the bus anymore. - Improve ReST syntax (plain struct and function names). - Remove the suggestion to use s_power() in receiver drivers. - Make MIPI website URL use HTTPS, add Wikipedia links to BT.601 and BT.656. Fixes: e4cf8c58af75 ("media: Documentation: media: Document how to write camera sensor drivers") Signed-off-by: Sakari Ailus <firstname.lastname@example.org> Reviewed-by: Jacopo Mondi <email@example.com> Reviewed-by: Andrey Konovalov <firstname.lastname@example.org> Signed-off-by: Mauro Carvalho Chehab <email@example.com>
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation')
5 files changed, 137 insertions, 123 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/driver-api/media/camera-sensor.rst b/Documentation/driver-api/media/camera-sensor.rst
index 7160336aa475..c7d4891bd24e 100644
@@ -3,10 +3,10 @@
Writing camera sensor drivers
+CSI-2 and parallel (BT.601 and BT.656) busses
-Please see what is written on :ref:`MIPI_CSI_2`.
+Please see :ref:`transmitter-receiver`.
@@ -26,15 +26,16 @@ user.
-Read the "clock-frequency" _DSD property to denote the frequency. The driver can
-rely on this frequency being used.
+Read the ``clock-frequency`` _DSD property to denote the frequency. The driver
+can rely on this frequency being used.
-The currently preferred way to achieve this is using "assigned-clock-rates"
-property. See Documentation/devicetree/bindings/clock/clock-bindings.txt for
-more information. The driver then gets the frequency using clk_get_rate().
+The currently preferred way to achieve this is using ``assigned-clocks``,
+``assigned-clock-parents`` and ``assigned-clock-rates`` properties. See
+``Documentation/devicetree/bindings/clock/clock-bindings.txt`` for more
+information. The driver then gets the frequency using ``clk_get_rate()``.
This approach has the drawback that there's no guarantee that the frequency
hasn't been modified directly or indirectly by another driver, or supported by
@@ -55,7 +56,7 @@ processing pipeline as one or more sub-devices with different cropping and
scaling configurations. The output size of the device is the result of a series
of cropping and scaling operations from the device's pixel array's size.
-An example of such a driver is the smiapp driver (see drivers/media/i2c/smiapp).
+An example of such a driver is the CCS driver (see ``drivers/media/i2c/ccs``).
Register list based drivers
@@ -67,7 +68,7 @@ level are independent. How a driver picks such configuration is based on the
format set on a source pad at the end of the device's internal pipeline.
Most sensor drivers are implemented this way, see e.g.
-drivers/media/i2c/imx319.c for an example.
+``drivers/media/i2c/imx319.c`` for an example.
Frame interval configuration
@@ -94,9 +95,10 @@ large variety of devices beyond camera sensors. Devices that have no analogue
crop, use the full source image size, i.e. pixel array size.
Horizontal and vertical blanking are specified by ``V4L2_CID_HBLANK`` and
-``V4L2_CID_VBLANK``, respectively. The unit of these controls are lines. The
-pixel rate is specified by ``V4L2_CID_PIXEL_RATE`` in the same sub-device. The
-unit of that control is Hz.
+``V4L2_CID_VBLANK``, respectively. The unit of the ``V4L2_CID_HBLANK`` control
+is pixels and the unit of the ``V4L2_CID_VBLANK`` is lines. The pixel rate in
+the sensor's **pixel array** is specified by ``V4L2_CID_PIXEL_RATE`` in the same
+sub-device. The unit of that control is pixels per second.
Register list based drivers need to implement read-only sub-device nodes for the
purpose. Devices that are not register list based need these to configure the
@@ -125,14 +127,14 @@ general, the device must be powered on at least when its registers are being
accessed and when it is streaming.
Existing camera sensor drivers may rely on the old
-:c:type:`v4l2_subdev_core_ops`->s_power() callback for bridge or ISP drivers to
+struct v4l2_subdev_core_ops->s_power() callback for bridge or ISP drivers to
manage their power state. This is however **deprecated**. If you feel you need
to begin calling an s_power from an ISP or a bridge driver, instead please add
runtime PM support to the sensor driver you are using. Likewise, new drivers
should not use s_power.
Please see examples in e.g. ``drivers/media/i2c/ov8856.c`` and
-``drivers/media/i2c/smiapp/smiapp-core.c``. The two drivers work in both ACPI
+``drivers/media/i2c/ccs/ccs-core.c``. The two drivers work in both ACPI
and DT based systems.
@@ -149,16 +151,3 @@ used to obtain device's power state after the power state transition:
The function returns a non-zero value if it succeeded getting the power count or
runtime PM was disabled, in either of which cases the driver may proceed to
access the device.
-For camera sensors that are connected to a bus where transmitter and receiver
-require common configuration set by drivers, such as CSI-2 or parallel (BT.601
-or BT.656) bus, the ``V4L2_CID_LINK_FREQ`` control is mandatory on transmitter
-drivers. Receiver drivers can use the ``V4L2_CID_LINK_FREQ`` to query the
-frequency used on the bus.
-The transmitter drivers should also implement ``V4L2_CID_PIXEL_RATE`` control in
-order to tell the maximum pixel rate to the receiver. This is required on raw
diff --git a/Documentation/driver-api/media/csi2.rst b/Documentation/driver-api/media/csi2.rst
deleted file mode 100644
@@ -1,94 +0,0 @@
-.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
-CSI-2 is a data bus intended for transferring images from cameras to
-the host SoC. It is defined by the `MIPI alliance`_.
-.. _`MIPI alliance`: http://www.mipi.org/
-Media bus formats
-See :ref:`v4l2-mbus-pixelcode` for details on which media bus formats should
-be used for CSI-2 interfaces.
-CSI-2 transmitter, such as a sensor or a TV tuner, drivers need to
-provide the CSI-2 receiver with information on the CSI-2 bus
-configuration. These include the V4L2_CID_LINK_FREQ and
-V4L2_CID_PIXEL_RATE controls and
-(:c:type:`v4l2_subdev_video_ops`->s_stream() callback). These
-interface elements must be present on the sub-device represents the
-The V4L2_CID_LINK_FREQ control is used to tell the receiver driver the
-frequency (and not the symbol rate) of the link. The V4L2_CID_PIXEL_RATE
-control may be used by the receiver to obtain the pixel rate the transmitter
-uses. The :c:type:`v4l2_subdev_video_ops`->s_stream() callback provides an
-ability to start and stop the stream.
-The value of the V4L2_CID_PIXEL_RATE is calculated as follows::
- pixel_rate = link_freq * 2 * nr_of_lanes * 16 / k / bits_per_sample
-.. list-table:: variables in pixel rate calculation
- :header-rows: 1
- * - variable or constant
- - description
- * - link_freq
- - The value of the V4L2_CID_LINK_FREQ integer64 menu item.
- * - nr_of_lanes
- - Number of data lanes used on the CSI-2 link. This can
- be obtained from the OF endpoint configuration.
- * - 2
- - Two bits are transferred per clock cycle per lane.
- * - bits_per_sample
- - Number of bits per sample.
- * - k
- - 16 for D-PHY and 7 for C-PHY
-The transmitter drivers must, if possible, configure the CSI-2
-transmitter to *LP-11 mode* whenever the transmitter is powered on but
-not active, and maintain *LP-11 mode* until stream on. Only at stream
-on should the transmitter activate the clock on the clock lane and
-transition to *HS mode*.
-Some transmitters do this automatically but some have to be explicitly
-programmed to do so, and some are unable to do so altogether due to
-Stopping the transmitter
-A transmitter stops sending the stream of images as a result of
-calling the ``.s_stream()`` callback. Some transmitters may stop the
-stream at a frame boundary whereas others stop immediately,
-effectively leaving the current frame unfinished. The receiver driver
-should not make assumptions either way, but function properly in both
-Before the receiver driver may enable the CSI-2 transmitter by using
-the :c:type:`v4l2_subdev_video_ops`->s_stream(), it must have powered
-the transmitter up by using the
-:c:type:`v4l2_subdev_core_ops`->s_power() callback. This may take
-place either indirectly by using :c:func:`v4l2_pipeline_pm_get` or
-The media bus pixel codes document parallel formats. Should the pixel data be
-transported over a serial bus, the media bus pixel code that describes a
-parallel format that transfers a sample on a single clock cycle is used.
diff --git a/Documentation/driver-api/media/index.rst b/Documentation/driver-api/media/index.rst
index 813d7db59da7..08e206567408 100644
@@ -37,7 +37,7 @@ Documentation/userspace-api/media/index.rst
diff --git a/Documentation/driver-api/media/tx-rx.rst b/Documentation/driver-api/media/tx-rx.rst
new file mode 100644
@@ -0,0 +1,117 @@
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+Pixel data transmitter and receiver drivers
+V4L2 supports various devices that transmit and receiver pixel data. Examples of
+these devices include a camera sensor, a TV tuner and a parallel or a CSI-2
+receiver in an SoC.
+The following busses are the most common. This section discusses these two only.
+CSI-2 is a data bus intended for transferring images from cameras to
+the host SoC. It is defined by the `MIPI alliance`_.
+.. _`MIPI alliance`: https://www.mipi.org/
+`BT.601`_ and `BT.656`_ are the most common parallel busses.
+.. _`BT.601`: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rec._601
+.. _`BT.656`: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ITU-R_BT.656
+Transmitter drivers generally need to provide the receiver drivers with the
+configuration of the transmitter. What is required depends on the type of the
+bus. These are common for both busses.
+Media bus pixel code
+The :ref:`V4L2_CID_LINK_FREQ <v4l2-cid-link-freq>` control is used to tell the
+receiver the frequency of the bus (i.e. it is not the same as the symbol rate).
+The struct struct v4l2_subdev_video_ops->s_stream() callback is used by the
+receiver driver to control the transmitter driver's streaming state.
+CSI-2 transmitter drivers
+The pixel rate on the bus is calculated as follows::
+ pixel_rate = link_freq * 2 * nr_of_lanes * 16 / k / bits_per_sample
+.. list-table:: variables in pixel rate calculation
+ :header-rows: 1
+ * - variable or constant
+ - description
+ * - link_freq
+ - The value of the ``V4L2_CID_LINK_FREQ`` integer64 menu item.
+ * - nr_of_lanes
+ - Number of data lanes used on the CSI-2 link. This can
+ be obtained from the OF endpoint configuration.
+ * - 2
+ - Data is transferred on both rising and falling edge of the signal.
+ * - bits_per_sample
+ - Number of bits per sample.
+ * - k
+ - 16 for D-PHY and 7 for C-PHY
+ The pixel rate calculated this way is **not** the same thing as the
+ pixel rate on the camera sensor's pixel array which is indicated by the
+ :ref:`V4L2_CID_PIXEL_RATE <v4l2-cid-pixel-rate>` control.
+LP-11 and LP-111 modes
+The transmitter drivers must, if possible, configure the CSI-2 transmitter to
+*LP-11 or LP-111 mode* whenever the transmitter is powered on but not active,
+and maintain *LP-11 or LP-111 mode* until stream on. Only at stream on should
+the transmitter activate the clock on the clock lane and transition to *HS
+Some transmitters do this automatically but some have to be explicitly
+programmed to do so, and some are unable to do so altogether due to
+The receiver thus need to be configured to expect LP-11 or LP-111 mode from the
+transmitter before the transmitter driver's ``.s_stream()`` op is called.
+Stopping the transmitter
+A transmitter stops sending the stream of images as a result of
+calling the ``.s_stream()`` callback. Some transmitters may stop the
+stream at a frame boundary whereas others stop immediately,
+effectively leaving the current frame unfinished. The receiver driver
+should not make assumptions either way, but function properly in both
diff --git a/Documentation/userspace-api/media/v4l/ext-ctrls-image-process.rst b/Documentation/userspace-api/media/v4l/ext-ctrls-image-process.rst
index 87698c15c027..37dad2f4df8c 100644
@@ -20,6 +20,8 @@ Image Process Control IDs
The IMAGE_PROC class descriptor.
``V4L2_CID_LINK_FREQ (integer menu)``
Data bus frequency. Together with the media bus pixel code, bus type
(clock cycles per sample), the data bus frequency defines the pixel