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authorVishal Verma <vishal.l.verma@intel.com>2015-06-25 04:20:32 -0400
committerDan Williams <dan.j.williams@intel.com>2015-06-26 11:23:38 -0400
commit5212e11fde4d40fa627668b4f2222d20db488f71 (patch)
tree153bae097b056dfc44f1781c69e24a8d1e71584a /drivers/nvdimm/btt.c
parent8c2f7e8658df1d3b7cbfa62706941d14c715823a (diff)
nd_btt: atomic sector updates
BTT stands for Block Translation Table, and is a way to provide power fail sector atomicity semantics for block devices that have the ability to perform byte granularity IO. It relies on the capability of libnvdimm namespace devices to do byte aligned IO. The BTT works as a stacked blocked device, and reserves a chunk of space from the backing device for its accounting metadata. It is a bio-based driver because all IO is done synchronously, and there is no queuing or asynchronous completions at either the device or the driver level. The BTT uses 'lanes' to index into various 'on-disk' data structures, and lanes also act as a synchronization mechanism in case there are more CPUs than available lanes. We did a comparison between two lane lock strategies - first where we kept an atomic counter around that tracked which was the last lane that was used, and 'our' lane was determined by atomically incrementing that. That way, for the nr_cpus > nr_lanes case, theoretically, no CPU would be blocked waiting for a lane. The other strategy was to use the cpu number we're scheduled on to and hash it to a lane number. Theoretically, this could block an IO that could've otherwise run using a different, free lane. But some fio workloads showed that the direct cpu -> lane hash performed faster than tracking 'last lane' - my reasoning is the cache thrash caused by moving the atomic variable made that approach slower than simply waiting out the in-progress IO. This supports the conclusion that the driver can be a very simple bio-based one that does synchronous IOs instead of queuing. Cc: Andy Lutomirski <luto@amacapital.net> Cc: Boaz Harrosh <boaz@plexistor.com> Cc: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com> Cc: Jens Axboe <axboe@fb.com> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org> Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de> Cc: Neil Brown <neilb@suse.de> Cc: Jeff Moyer <jmoyer@redhat.com> Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com> Cc: Greg KH <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org> [jmoyer: fix nmi watchdog timeout in btt_map_init] [jmoyer: move btt initialization to module load path] [jmoyer: fix memory leak in the btt initialization path] [jmoyer: Don't overwrite corrupted arenas] Signed-off-by: Vishal Verma <vishal.l.verma@linux.intel.com> Signed-off-by: Dan Williams <dan.j.williams@intel.com>
Diffstat (limited to 'drivers/nvdimm/btt.c')
-rw-r--r--drivers/nvdimm/btt.c1371
1 files changed, 1371 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/drivers/nvdimm/btt.c b/drivers/nvdimm/btt.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..7ae38aac2c25
--- /dev/null
+++ b/drivers/nvdimm/btt.c
@@ -0,0 +1,1371 @@
+/*
+ * Block Translation Table
+ * Copyright (c) 2014-2015, Intel Corporation.
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+ * under the terms and conditions of the GNU General Public License,
+ * version 2, as published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+ * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+ * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for
+ * more details.
+ */
+#include <linux/highmem.h>
+#include <linux/debugfs.h>
+#include <linux/blkdev.h>
+#include <linux/module.h>
+#include <linux/device.h>
+#include <linux/mutex.h>
+#include <linux/hdreg.h>
+#include <linux/genhd.h>
+#include <linux/sizes.h>
+#include <linux/ndctl.h>
+#include <linux/fs.h>
+#include <linux/nd.h>
+#include "btt.h"
+#include "nd.h"
+
+enum log_ent_request {
+ LOG_NEW_ENT = 0,
+ LOG_OLD_ENT
+};
+
+static int btt_major;
+
+static int arena_read_bytes(struct arena_info *arena, resource_size_t offset,
+ void *buf, size_t n)
+{
+ struct nd_btt *nd_btt = arena->nd_btt;
+ struct nd_namespace_common *ndns = nd_btt->ndns;
+
+ /* arena offsets are 4K from the base of the device */
+ offset += SZ_4K;
+ return nvdimm_read_bytes(ndns, offset, buf, n);
+}
+
+static int arena_write_bytes(struct arena_info *arena, resource_size_t offset,
+ void *buf, size_t n)
+{
+ struct nd_btt *nd_btt = arena->nd_btt;
+ struct nd_namespace_common *ndns = nd_btt->ndns;
+
+ /* arena offsets are 4K from the base of the device */
+ offset += SZ_4K;
+ return nvdimm_write_bytes(ndns, offset, buf, n);
+}
+
+static int btt_info_write(struct arena_info *arena, struct btt_sb *super)
+{
+ int ret;
+
+ ret = arena_write_bytes(arena, arena->info2off, super,
+ sizeof(struct btt_sb));
+ if (ret)
+ return ret;
+
+ return arena_write_bytes(arena, arena->infooff, super,
+ sizeof(struct btt_sb));
+}
+
+static int btt_info_read(struct arena_info *arena, struct btt_sb *super)
+{
+ WARN_ON(!super);
+ return arena_read_bytes(arena, arena->infooff, super,
+ sizeof(struct btt_sb));
+}
+
+/*
+ * 'raw' version of btt_map write
+ * Assumptions:
+ * mapping is in little-endian
+ * mapping contains 'E' and 'Z' flags as desired
+ */
+static int __btt_map_write(struct arena_info *arena, u32 lba, __le32 mapping)
+{
+ u64 ns_off = arena->mapoff + (lba * MAP_ENT_SIZE);
+
+ WARN_ON(lba >= arena->external_nlba);
+ return arena_write_bytes(arena, ns_off, &mapping, MAP_ENT_SIZE);
+}
+
+static int btt_map_write(struct arena_info *arena, u32 lba, u32 mapping,
+ u32 z_flag, u32 e_flag)
+{
+ u32 ze;
+ __le32 mapping_le;
+
+ /*
+ * This 'mapping' is supposed to be just the LBA mapping, without
+ * any flags set, so strip the flag bits.
+ */
+ mapping &= MAP_LBA_MASK;
+
+ ze = (z_flag << 1) + e_flag;
+ switch (ze) {
+ case 0:
+ /*
+ * We want to set neither of the Z or E flags, and
+ * in the actual layout, this means setting the bit
+ * positions of both to '1' to indicate a 'normal'
+ * map entry
+ */
+ mapping |= MAP_ENT_NORMAL;
+ break;
+ case 1:
+ mapping |= (1 << MAP_ERR_SHIFT);
+ break;
+ case 2:
+ mapping |= (1 << MAP_TRIM_SHIFT);
+ break;
+ default:
+ /*
+ * The case where Z and E are both sent in as '1' could be
+ * construed as a valid 'normal' case, but we decide not to,
+ * to avoid confusion
+ */
+ WARN_ONCE(1, "Invalid use of Z and E flags\n");
+ return -EIO;
+ }
+
+ mapping_le = cpu_to_le32(mapping);
+ return __btt_map_write(arena, lba, mapping_le);
+}
+
+static int btt_map_read(struct arena_info *arena, u32 lba, u32 *mapping,
+ int *trim, int *error)
+{
+ int ret;
+ __le32 in;
+ u32 raw_mapping, postmap, ze, z_flag, e_flag;
+ u64 ns_off = arena->mapoff + (lba * MAP_ENT_SIZE);
+
+ WARN_ON(lba >= arena->external_nlba);
+
+ ret = arena_read_bytes(arena, ns_off, &in, MAP_ENT_SIZE);
+ if (ret)
+ return ret;
+
+ raw_mapping = le32_to_cpu(in);
+
+ z_flag = (raw_mapping & MAP_TRIM_MASK) >> MAP_TRIM_SHIFT;
+ e_flag = (raw_mapping & MAP_ERR_MASK) >> MAP_ERR_SHIFT;
+ ze = (z_flag << 1) + e_flag;
+ postmap = raw_mapping & MAP_LBA_MASK;
+
+ /* Reuse the {z,e}_flag variables for *trim and *error */
+ z_flag = 0;
+ e_flag = 0;
+
+ switch (ze) {
+ case 0:
+ /* Initial state. Return postmap = premap */
+ *mapping = lba;
+ break;
+ case 1:
+ *mapping = postmap;
+ e_flag = 1;
+ break;
+ case 2:
+ *mapping = postmap;
+ z_flag = 1;
+ break;
+ case 3:
+ *mapping = postmap;
+ break;
+ default:
+ return -EIO;
+ }
+
+ if (trim)
+ *trim = z_flag;
+ if (error)
+ *error = e_flag;
+
+ return ret;
+}
+
+static int btt_log_read_pair(struct arena_info *arena, u32 lane,
+ struct log_entry *ent)
+{
+ WARN_ON(!ent);
+ return arena_read_bytes(arena,
+ arena->logoff + (2 * lane * LOG_ENT_SIZE), ent,
+ 2 * LOG_ENT_SIZE);
+}
+
+static struct dentry *debugfs_root;
+
+static void arena_debugfs_init(struct arena_info *a, struct dentry *parent,
+ int idx)
+{
+ char dirname[32];
+ struct dentry *d;
+
+ /* If for some reason, parent bttN was not created, exit */
+ if (!parent)
+ return;
+
+ snprintf(dirname, 32, "arena%d", idx);
+ d = debugfs_create_dir(dirname, parent);
+ if (IS_ERR_OR_NULL(d))
+ return;
+ a->debugfs_dir = d;
+
+ debugfs_create_x64("size", S_IRUGO, d, &a->size);
+ debugfs_create_x64("external_lba_start", S_IRUGO, d,
+ &a->external_lba_start);
+ debugfs_create_x32("internal_nlba", S_IRUGO, d, &a->internal_nlba);
+ debugfs_create_u32("internal_lbasize", S_IRUGO, d,
+ &a->internal_lbasize);
+ debugfs_create_x32("external_nlba", S_IRUGO, d, &a->external_nlba);
+ debugfs_create_u32("external_lbasize", S_IRUGO, d,
+ &a->external_lbasize);
+ debugfs_create_u32("nfree", S_IRUGO, d, &a->nfree);
+ debugfs_create_u16("version_major", S_IRUGO, d, &a->version_major);
+ debugfs_create_u16("version_minor", S_IRUGO, d, &a->version_minor);
+ debugfs_create_x64("nextoff", S_IRUGO, d, &a->nextoff);
+ debugfs_create_x64("infooff", S_IRUGO, d, &a->infooff);
+ debugfs_create_x64("dataoff", S_IRUGO, d, &a->dataoff);
+ debugfs_create_x64("mapoff", S_IRUGO, d, &a->mapoff);
+ debugfs_create_x64("logoff", S_IRUGO, d, &a->logoff);
+ debugfs_create_x64("info2off", S_IRUGO, d, &a->info2off);
+ debugfs_create_x32("flags", S_IRUGO, d, &a->flags);
+}
+
+static void btt_debugfs_init(struct btt *btt)
+{
+ int i = 0;
+ struct arena_info *arena;
+
+ btt->debugfs_dir = debugfs_create_dir(dev_name(&btt->nd_btt->dev),
+ debugfs_root);
+ if (IS_ERR_OR_NULL(btt->debugfs_dir))
+ return;
+
+ list_for_each_entry(arena, &btt->arena_list, list) {
+ arena_debugfs_init(arena, btt->debugfs_dir, i);
+ i++;
+ }
+}
+
+/*
+ * This function accepts two log entries, and uses the
+ * sequence number to find the 'older' entry.
+ * It also updates the sequence number in this old entry to
+ * make it the 'new' one if the mark_flag is set.
+ * Finally, it returns which of the entries was the older one.
+ *
+ * TODO The logic feels a bit kludge-y. make it better..
+ */
+static int btt_log_get_old(struct log_entry *ent)
+{
+ int old;
+
+ /*
+ * the first ever time this is seen, the entry goes into [0]
+ * the next time, the following logic works out to put this
+ * (next) entry into [1]
+ */
+ if (ent[0].seq == 0) {
+ ent[0].seq = cpu_to_le32(1);
+ return 0;
+ }
+
+ if (ent[0].seq == ent[1].seq)
+ return -EINVAL;
+ if (le32_to_cpu(ent[0].seq) + le32_to_cpu(ent[1].seq) > 5)
+ return -EINVAL;
+
+ if (le32_to_cpu(ent[0].seq) < le32_to_cpu(ent[1].seq)) {
+ if (le32_to_cpu(ent[1].seq) - le32_to_cpu(ent[0].seq) == 1)
+ old = 0;
+ else
+ old = 1;
+ } else {
+ if (le32_to_cpu(ent[0].seq) - le32_to_cpu(ent[1].seq) == 1)
+ old = 1;
+ else
+ old = 0;
+ }
+
+ return old;
+}
+
+static struct device *to_dev(struct arena_info *arena)
+{
+ return &arena->nd_btt->dev;
+}
+
+/*
+ * This function copies the desired (old/new) log entry into ent if
+ * it is not NULL. It returns the sub-slot number (0 or 1)
+ * where the desired log entry was found. Negative return values
+ * indicate errors.
+ */
+static int btt_log_read(struct arena_info *arena, u32 lane,
+ struct log_entry *ent, int old_flag)
+{
+ int ret;
+ int old_ent, ret_ent;
+ struct log_entry log[2];
+
+ ret = btt_log_read_pair(arena, lane, log);
+ if (ret)
+ return -EIO;
+
+ old_ent = btt_log_get_old(log);
+ if (old_ent < 0 || old_ent > 1) {
+ dev_info(to_dev(arena),
+ "log corruption (%d): lane %d seq [%d, %d]\n",
+ old_ent, lane, log[0].seq, log[1].seq);
+ /* TODO set error state? */
+ return -EIO;
+ }
+
+ ret_ent = (old_flag ? old_ent : (1 - old_ent));
+
+ if (ent != NULL)
+ memcpy(ent, &log[ret_ent], LOG_ENT_SIZE);
+
+ return ret_ent;
+}
+
+/*
+ * This function commits a log entry to media
+ * It does _not_ prepare the freelist entry for the next write
+ * btt_flog_write is the wrapper for updating the freelist elements
+ */
+static int __btt_log_write(struct arena_info *arena, u32 lane,
+ u32 sub, struct log_entry *ent)
+{
+ int ret;
+ /*
+ * Ignore the padding in log_entry for calculating log_half.
+ * The entry is 'committed' when we write the sequence number,
+ * and we want to ensure that that is the last thing written.
+ * We don't bother writing the padding as that would be extra
+ * media wear and write amplification
+ */
+ unsigned int log_half = (LOG_ENT_SIZE - 2 * sizeof(u64)) / 2;
+ u64 ns_off = arena->logoff + (((2 * lane) + sub) * LOG_ENT_SIZE);
+ void *src = ent;
+
+ /* split the 16B write into atomic, durable halves */
+ ret = arena_write_bytes(arena, ns_off, src, log_half);
+ if (ret)
+ return ret;
+
+ ns_off += log_half;
+ src += log_half;
+ return arena_write_bytes(arena, ns_off, src, log_half);
+}
+
+static int btt_flog_write(struct arena_info *arena, u32 lane, u32 sub,
+ struct log_entry *ent)
+{
+ int ret;
+
+ ret = __btt_log_write(arena, lane, sub, ent);
+ if (ret)
+ return ret;
+
+ /* prepare the next free entry */
+ arena->freelist[lane].sub = 1 - arena->freelist[lane].sub;
+ if (++(arena->freelist[lane].seq) == 4)
+ arena->freelist[lane].seq = 1;
+ arena->freelist[lane].block = le32_to_cpu(ent->old_map);
+
+ return ret;
+}
+
+/*
+ * This function initializes the BTT map to the initial state, which is
+ * all-zeroes, and indicates an identity mapping
+ */
+static int btt_map_init(struct arena_info *arena)
+{
+ int ret = -EINVAL;
+ void *zerobuf;
+ size_t offset = 0;
+ size_t chunk_size = SZ_2M;
+ size_t mapsize = arena->logoff - arena->mapoff;
+
+ zerobuf = kzalloc(chunk_size, GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!zerobuf)
+ return -ENOMEM;
+
+ while (mapsize) {
+ size_t size = min(mapsize, chunk_size);
+
+ ret = arena_write_bytes(arena, arena->mapoff + offset, zerobuf,
+ size);
+ if (ret)
+ goto free;
+
+ offset += size;
+ mapsize -= size;
+ cond_resched();
+ }
+
+ free:
+ kfree(zerobuf);
+ return ret;
+}
+
+/*
+ * This function initializes the BTT log with 'fake' entries pointing
+ * to the initial reserved set of blocks as being free
+ */
+static int btt_log_init(struct arena_info *arena)
+{
+ int ret;
+ u32 i;
+ struct log_entry log, zerolog;
+
+ memset(&zerolog, 0, sizeof(zerolog));
+
+ for (i = 0; i < arena->nfree; i++) {
+ log.lba = cpu_to_le32(i);
+ log.old_map = cpu_to_le32(arena->external_nlba + i);
+ log.new_map = cpu_to_le32(arena->external_nlba + i);
+ log.seq = cpu_to_le32(LOG_SEQ_INIT);
+ ret = __btt_log_write(arena, i, 0, &log);
+ if (ret)
+ return ret;
+ ret = __btt_log_write(arena, i, 1, &zerolog);
+ if (ret)
+ return ret;
+ }
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static int btt_freelist_init(struct arena_info *arena)
+{
+ int old, new, ret;
+ u32 i, map_entry;
+ struct log_entry log_new, log_old;
+
+ arena->freelist = kcalloc(arena->nfree, sizeof(struct free_entry),
+ GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!arena->freelist)
+ return -ENOMEM;
+
+ for (i = 0; i < arena->nfree; i++) {
+ old = btt_log_read(arena, i, &log_old, LOG_OLD_ENT);
+ if (old < 0)
+ return old;
+
+ new = btt_log_read(arena, i, &log_new, LOG_NEW_ENT);
+ if (new < 0)
+ return new;
+
+ /* sub points to the next one to be overwritten */
+ arena->freelist[i].sub = 1 - new;
+ arena->freelist[i].seq = nd_inc_seq(le32_to_cpu(log_new.seq));
+ arena->freelist[i].block = le32_to_cpu(log_new.old_map);
+
+ /* This implies a newly created or untouched flog entry */
+ if (log_new.old_map == log_new.new_map)
+ continue;
+
+ /* Check if map recovery is needed */
+ ret = btt_map_read(arena, le32_to_cpu(log_new.lba), &map_entry,
+ NULL, NULL);
+ if (ret)
+ return ret;
+ if ((le32_to_cpu(log_new.new_map) != map_entry) &&
+ (le32_to_cpu(log_new.old_map) == map_entry)) {
+ /*
+ * Last transaction wrote the flog, but wasn't able
+ * to complete the map write. So fix up the map.
+ */
+ ret = btt_map_write(arena, le32_to_cpu(log_new.lba),
+ le32_to_cpu(log_new.new_map), 0, 0);
+ if (ret)
+ return ret;
+ }
+
+ }
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static int btt_rtt_init(struct arena_info *arena)
+{
+ arena->rtt = kcalloc(arena->nfree, sizeof(u32), GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (arena->rtt == NULL)
+ return -ENOMEM;
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static int btt_maplocks_init(struct arena_info *arena)
+{
+ u32 i;
+
+ arena->map_locks = kcalloc(arena->nfree, sizeof(struct aligned_lock),
+ GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!arena->map_locks)
+ return -ENOMEM;
+
+ for (i = 0; i < arena->nfree; i++)
+ spin_lock_init(&arena->map_locks[i].lock);
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static struct arena_info *alloc_arena(struct btt *btt, size_t size,
+ size_t start, size_t arena_off)
+{
+ struct arena_info *arena;
+ u64 logsize, mapsize, datasize;
+ u64 available = size;
+
+ arena = kzalloc(sizeof(struct arena_info), GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!arena)
+ return NULL;
+ arena->nd_btt = btt->nd_btt;
+
+ if (!size)
+ return arena;
+
+ arena->size = size;
+ arena->external_lba_start = start;
+ arena->external_lbasize = btt->lbasize;
+ arena->internal_lbasize = roundup(arena->external_lbasize,
+ INT_LBASIZE_ALIGNMENT);
+ arena->nfree = BTT_DEFAULT_NFREE;
+ arena->version_major = 1;
+ arena->version_minor = 1;
+
+ if (available % BTT_PG_SIZE)
+ available -= (available % BTT_PG_SIZE);
+
+ /* Two pages are reserved for the super block and its copy */
+ available -= 2 * BTT_PG_SIZE;
+
+ /* The log takes a fixed amount of space based on nfree */
+ logsize = roundup(2 * arena->nfree * sizeof(struct log_entry),
+ BTT_PG_SIZE);
+ available -= logsize;
+
+ /* Calculate optimal split between map and data area */
+ arena->internal_nlba = div_u64(available - BTT_PG_SIZE,
+ arena->internal_lbasize + MAP_ENT_SIZE);
+ arena->external_nlba = arena->internal_nlba - arena->nfree;
+
+ mapsize = roundup((arena->external_nlba * MAP_ENT_SIZE), BTT_PG_SIZE);
+ datasize = available - mapsize;
+
+ /* 'Absolute' values, relative to start of storage space */
+ arena->infooff = arena_off;
+ arena->dataoff = arena->infooff + BTT_PG_SIZE;
+ arena->mapoff = arena->dataoff + datasize;
+ arena->logoff = arena->mapoff + mapsize;
+ arena->info2off = arena->logoff + logsize;
+ return arena;
+}
+
+static void free_arenas(struct btt *btt)
+{
+ struct arena_info *arena, *next;
+
+ list_for_each_entry_safe(arena, next, &btt->arena_list, list) {
+ list_del(&arena->list);
+ kfree(arena->rtt);
+ kfree(arena->map_locks);
+ kfree(arena->freelist);
+ debugfs_remove_recursive(arena->debugfs_dir);
+ kfree(arena);
+ }
+}
+
+/*
+ * This function checks if the metadata layout is valid and error free
+ */
+static int arena_is_valid(struct arena_info *arena, struct btt_sb *super,
+ u8 *uuid, u32 lbasize)
+{
+ u64 checksum;
+
+ if (memcmp(super->uuid, uuid, 16))
+ return 0;
+
+ checksum = le64_to_cpu(super->checksum);
+ super->checksum = 0;
+ if (checksum != nd_btt_sb_checksum(super))
+ return 0;
+ super->checksum = cpu_to_le64(checksum);
+
+ if (lbasize != le32_to_cpu(super->external_lbasize))
+ return 0;
+
+ /* TODO: figure out action for this */
+ if ((le32_to_cpu(super->flags) & IB_FLAG_ERROR_MASK) != 0)
+ dev_info(to_dev(arena), "Found arena with an error flag\n");
+
+ return 1;
+}
+
+/*
+ * This function reads an existing valid btt superblock and
+ * populates the corresponding arena_info struct
+ */
+static void parse_arena_meta(struct arena_info *arena, struct btt_sb *super,
+ u64 arena_off)
+{
+ arena->internal_nlba = le32_to_cpu(super->internal_nlba);
+ arena->internal_lbasize = le32_to_cpu(super->internal_lbasize);
+ arena->external_nlba = le32_to_cpu(super->external_nlba);
+ arena->external_lbasize = le32_to_cpu(super->external_lbasize);
+ arena->nfree = le32_to_cpu(super->nfree);
+ arena->version_major = le16_to_cpu(super->version_major);
+ arena->version_minor = le16_to_cpu(super->version_minor);
+
+ arena->nextoff = (super->nextoff == 0) ? 0 : (arena_off +
+ le64_to_cpu(super->nextoff));
+ arena->infooff = arena_off;
+ arena->dataoff = arena_off + le64_to_cpu(super->dataoff);
+ arena->mapoff = arena_off + le64_to_cpu(super->mapoff);
+ arena->logoff = arena_off + le64_to_cpu(super->logoff);
+ arena->info2off = arena_off + le64_to_cpu(super->info2off);
+
+ arena->size = (super->nextoff > 0) ? (le64_to_cpu(super->nextoff)) :
+ (arena->info2off - arena->infooff + BTT_PG_SIZE);
+
+ arena->flags = le32_to_cpu(super->flags);
+}
+
+static int discover_arenas(struct btt *btt)
+{
+ int ret = 0;
+ struct arena_info *arena;
+ struct btt_sb *super;
+ size_t remaining = btt->rawsize;
+ u64 cur_nlba = 0;
+ size_t cur_off = 0;
+ int num_arenas = 0;
+
+ super = kzalloc(sizeof(*super), GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!super)
+ return -ENOMEM;
+
+ while (remaining) {
+ /* Alloc memory for arena */
+ arena = alloc_arena(btt, 0, 0, 0);
+ if (!arena) {
+ ret = -ENOMEM;
+ goto out_super;
+ }
+
+ arena->infooff = cur_off;
+ ret = btt_info_read(arena, super);
+ if (ret)
+ goto out;
+
+ if (!arena_is_valid(arena, super, btt->nd_btt->uuid,
+ btt->lbasize)) {
+ if (remaining == btt->rawsize) {
+ btt->init_state = INIT_NOTFOUND;
+ dev_info(to_dev(arena), "No existing arenas\n");
+ goto out;
+ } else {
+ dev_info(to_dev(arena),
+ "Found corrupted metadata!\n");
+ ret = -ENODEV;
+ goto out;
+ }
+ }
+
+ arena->external_lba_start = cur_nlba;
+ parse_arena_meta(arena, super, cur_off);
+
+ ret = btt_freelist_init(arena);
+ if (ret)
+ goto out;
+
+ ret = btt_rtt_init(arena);
+ if (ret)
+ goto out;
+
+ ret = btt_maplocks_init(arena);
+ if (ret)
+ goto out;
+
+ list_add_tail(&arena->list, &btt->arena_list);
+
+ remaining -= arena->size;
+ cur_off += arena->size;
+ cur_nlba += arena->external_nlba;
+ num_arenas++;
+
+ if (arena->nextoff == 0)
+ break;
+ }
+ btt->num_arenas = num_arenas;
+ btt->nlba = cur_nlba;
+ btt->init_state = INIT_READY;
+
+ kfree(super);
+ return ret;
+
+ out:
+ kfree(arena);
+ free_arenas(btt);
+ out_super:
+ kfree(super);
+ return ret;
+}
+
+static int create_arenas(struct btt *btt)
+{
+ size_t remaining = btt->rawsize;
+ size_t cur_off = 0;
+
+ while (remaining) {
+ struct arena_info *arena;
+ size_t arena_size = min_t(u64, ARENA_MAX_SIZE, remaining);
+
+ remaining -= arena_size;
+ if (arena_size < ARENA_MIN_SIZE)
+ break;
+
+ arena = alloc_arena(btt, arena_size, btt->nlba, cur_off);
+ if (!arena) {
+ free_arenas(btt);
+ return -ENOMEM;
+ }
+ btt->nlba += arena->external_nlba;
+ if (remaining >= ARENA_MIN_SIZE)
+ arena->nextoff = arena->size;
+ else
+ arena->nextoff = 0;
+ cur_off += arena_size;
+ list_add_tail(&arena->list, &btt->arena_list);
+ }
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+/*
+ * This function completes arena initialization by writing
+ * all the metadata.
+ * It is only called for an uninitialized arena when a write
+ * to that arena occurs for the first time.
+ */
+static int btt_arena_write_layout(struct arena_info *arena, u8 *uuid)
+{
+ int ret;
+ struct btt_sb *super;
+
+ ret = btt_map_init(arena);
+ if (ret)
+ return ret;
+
+ ret = btt_log_init(arena);
+ if (ret)
+ return ret;
+
+ super = kzalloc(sizeof(struct btt_sb), GFP_NOIO);
+ if (!super)
+ return -ENOMEM;
+
+ strncpy(super->signature, BTT_SIG, BTT_SIG_LEN);
+ memcpy(super->uuid, uuid, 16);
+ super->flags = cpu_to_le32(arena->flags);
+ super->version_major = cpu_to_le16(arena->version_major);
+ super->version_minor = cpu_to_le16(arena->version_minor);
+ super->external_lbasize = cpu_to_le32(arena->external_lbasize);
+ super->external_nlba = cpu_to_le32(arena->external_nlba);
+ super->internal_lbasize = cpu_to_le32(arena->internal_lbasize);
+ super->internal_nlba = cpu_to_le32(arena->internal_nlba);
+ super->nfree = cpu_to_le32(arena->nfree);
+ super->infosize = cpu_to_le32(sizeof(struct btt_sb));
+ super->nextoff = cpu_to_le64(arena->nextoff);
+ /*
+ * Subtract arena->infooff (arena start) so numbers are relative
+ * to 'this' arena
+ */
+ super->dataoff = cpu_to_le64(arena->dataoff - arena->infooff);
+ super->mapoff = cpu_to_le64(arena->mapoff - arena->infooff);
+ super->logoff = cpu_to_le64(arena->logoff - arena->infooff);
+ super->info2off = cpu_to_le64(arena->info2off - arena->infooff);
+
+ super->flags = 0;
+ super->checksum = cpu_to_le64(nd_btt_sb_checksum(super));
+
+ ret = btt_info_write(arena, super);
+
+ kfree(super);
+ return ret;
+}
+
+/*
+ * This function completes the initialization for the BTT namespace
+ * such that it is ready to accept IOs
+ */
+static int btt_meta_init(struct btt *btt)
+{
+ int ret = 0;
+ struct arena_info *arena;
+
+ mutex_lock(&btt->init_lock);
+ list_for_each_entry(arena, &btt->arena_list, list) {
+ ret = btt_arena_write_layout(arena, btt->nd_btt->uuid);
+ if (ret)
+ goto unlock;
+
+ ret = btt_freelist_init(arena);
+ if (ret)
+ goto unlock;
+
+ ret = btt_rtt_init(arena);
+ if (ret)
+ goto unlock;
+
+ ret = btt_maplocks_init(arena);
+ if (ret)
+ goto unlock;
+ }
+
+ btt->init_state = INIT_READY;
+
+ unlock:
+ mutex_unlock(&btt->init_lock);
+ return ret;
+}
+
+/*
+ * This function calculates the arena in which the given LBA lies
+ * by doing a linear walk. This is acceptable since we expect only
+ * a few arenas. If we have backing devices that get much larger,
+ * we can construct a balanced binary tree of arenas at init time
+ * so that this range search becomes faster.
+ */
+static int lba_to_arena(struct btt *btt, sector_t sector, __u32 *premap,
+ struct arena_info **arena)
+{
+ struct arena_info *arena_list;
+ __u64 lba = div_u64(sector << SECTOR_SHIFT, btt->sector_size);
+
+ list_for_each_entry(arena_list, &btt->arena_list, list) {
+ if (lba < arena_list->external_nlba) {
+ *arena = arena_list;
+ *premap = lba;
+ return 0;
+ }
+ lba -= arena_list->external_nlba;
+ }
+
+ return -EIO;
+}
+
+/*
+ * The following (lock_map, unlock_map) are mostly just to improve
+ * readability, since they index into an array of locks
+ */
+static void lock_map(struct arena_info *arena, u32 premap)
+ __acquires(&arena->map_locks[idx].lock)
+{
+ u32 idx = (premap * MAP_ENT_SIZE / L1_CACHE_BYTES) % arena->nfree;
+
+ spin_lock(&arena->map_locks[idx].lock);
+}
+
+static void unlock_map(struct arena_info *arena, u32 premap)
+ __releases(&arena->map_locks[idx].lock)
+{
+ u32 idx = (premap * MAP_ENT_SIZE / L1_CACHE_BYTES) % arena->nfree;
+
+ spin_unlock(&arena->map_locks[idx].lock);
+}
+
+static u64 to_namespace_offset(struct arena_info *arena, u64 lba)
+{
+ return arena->dataoff + ((u64)lba * arena->internal_lbasize);
+}
+
+static int btt_data_read(struct arena_info *arena, struct page *page,
+ unsigned int off, u32 lba, u32 len)
+{
+ int ret;
+ u64 nsoff = to_namespace_offset(arena, lba);
+ void *mem = kmap_atomic(page);
+
+ ret = arena_read_bytes(arena, nsoff, mem + off, len);
+ kunmap_atomic(mem);
+
+ return ret;
+}
+
+static int btt_data_write(struct arena_info *arena, u32 lba,
+ struct page *page, unsigned int off, u32 len)
+{
+ int ret;
+ u64 nsoff = to_namespace_offset(arena, lba);
+ void *mem = kmap_atomic(page);
+
+ ret = arena_write_bytes(arena, nsoff, mem + off, len);
+ kunmap_atomic(mem);
+
+ return ret;
+}
+
+static void zero_fill_data(struct page *page, unsigned int off, u32 len)
+{
+ void *mem = kmap_atomic(page);
+
+ memset(mem + off, 0, len);
+ kunmap_atomic(mem);
+}
+
+static int btt_read_pg(struct btt *btt, struct page *page, unsigned int off,
+ sector_t sector, unsigned int len)
+{
+ int ret = 0;
+ int t_flag, e_flag;
+ struct arena_info *arena = NULL;
+ u32 lane = 0, premap, postmap;
+
+ while (len) {
+ u32 cur_len;
+
+ lane = nd_region_acquire_lane(btt->nd_region);
+
+ ret = lba_to_arena(btt, sector, &premap, &arena);
+ if (ret)
+ goto out_lane;
+
+ cur_len = min(btt->sector_size, len);
+
+ ret = btt_map_read(arena, premap, &postmap, &t_flag, &e_flag);
+ if (ret)
+ goto out_lane;
+
+ /*
+ * We loop to make sure that the post map LBA didn't change
+ * from under us between writing the RTT and doing the actual
+ * read.
+ */
+ while (1) {
+ u32 new_map;
+
+ if (t_flag) {
+ zero_fill_data(page, off, cur_len);
+ goto out_lane;
+ }
+
+ if (e_flag) {
+ ret = -EIO;
+ goto out_lane;
+ }
+
+ arena->rtt[lane] = RTT_VALID | postmap;
+ /*
+ * Barrier to make sure this write is not reordered
+ * to do the verification map_read before the RTT store
+ */
+ barrier();
+
+ ret = btt_map_read(arena, premap, &new_map, &t_flag,
+ &e_flag);
+ if (ret)
+ goto out_rtt;
+
+ if (postmap == new_map)
+ break;
+
+ postmap = new_map;
+ }
+
+ ret = btt_data_read(arena, page, off, postmap, cur_len);
+ if (ret)
+ goto out_rtt;
+
+ arena->rtt[lane] = RTT_INVALID;
+ nd_region_release_lane(btt->nd_region, lane);
+
+ len -= cur_len;
+ off += cur_len;
+ sector += btt->sector_size >> SECTOR_SHIFT;
+ }
+
+ return 0;
+
+ out_rtt:
+ arena->rtt[lane] = RTT_INVALID;
+ out_lane:
+ nd_region_release_lane(btt->nd_region, lane);
+ return ret;
+}
+
+static int btt_write_pg(struct btt *btt, sector_t sector, struct page *page,
+ unsigned int off, unsigned int len)
+{
+ int ret = 0;
+ struct arena_info *arena = NULL;
+ u32 premap = 0, old_postmap, new_postmap, lane = 0, i;
+ struct log_entry log;
+ int sub;
+
+ while (len) {
+ u32 cur_len;
+
+ lane = nd_region_acquire_lane(btt->nd_region);
+
+ ret = lba_to_arena(btt, sector, &premap, &arena);
+ if (ret)
+ goto out_lane;
+ cur_len = min(btt->sector_size, len);
+
+ if ((arena->flags & IB_FLAG_ERROR_MASK) != 0) {
+ ret = -EIO;
+ goto out_lane;
+ }
+
+ new_postmap = arena->freelist[lane].block;
+
+ /* Wait if the new block is being read from */
+ for (i = 0; i < arena->nfree; i++)
+ while (arena->rtt[i] == (RTT_VALID | new_postmap))
+ cpu_relax();
+
+
+ if (new_postmap >= arena->internal_nlba) {
+ ret = -EIO;
+ goto out_lane;
+ } else
+ ret = btt_data_write(arena, new_postmap, page,
+ off, cur_len);
+ if (ret)
+ goto out_lane;
+
+ lock_map(arena, premap);
+ ret = btt_map_read(arena, premap, &old_postmap, NULL, NULL);
+ if (ret)
+ goto out_map;
+ if (old_postmap >= arena->internal_nlba) {
+ ret = -EIO;
+ goto out_map;
+ }
+
+ log.lba = cpu_to_le32(premap);
+ log.old_map = cpu_to_le32(old_postmap);
+ log.new_map = cpu_to_le32(new_postmap);
+ log.seq = cpu_to_le32(arena->freelist[lane].seq);
+ sub = arena->freelist[lane].sub;
+ ret = btt_flog_write(arena, lane, sub, &log);
+ if (ret)
+ goto out_map;
+
+ ret = btt_map_write(arena, premap, new_postmap, 0, 0);
+ if (ret)
+ goto out_map;
+
+ unlock_map(arena, premap);
+ nd_region_release_lane(btt->nd_region, lane);
+
+ len -= cur_len;
+ off += cur_len;
+ sector += btt->sector_size >> SECTOR_SHIFT;
+ }
+
+ return 0;
+
+ out_map:
+ unlock_map(arena, premap);
+ out_lane:
+ nd_region_release_lane(btt->nd_region, lane);
+ return ret;
+}
+
+static int btt_do_bvec(struct btt *btt, struct page *page,
+ unsigned int len, unsigned int off, int rw,
+ sector_t sector)
+{
+ int ret;
+
+ if (rw == READ) {
+ ret = btt_read_pg(btt, page, off, sector, len);
+ flush_dcache_page(page);
+ } else {
+ flush_dcache_page(page);
+ ret = btt_write_pg(btt, sector, page, off, len);
+ }
+
+ return ret;
+}
+
+static void btt_make_request(struct request_queue *q, struct bio *bio)
+{
+ struct btt *btt = q->queuedata;
+ struct bvec_iter iter;
+ struct bio_vec bvec;
+ int err = 0, rw;
+
+ rw = bio_data_dir(bio);
+ bio_for_each_segment(bvec, bio, iter) {
+ unsigned int len = bvec.bv_len;
+
+ BUG_ON(len > PAGE_SIZE);
+ /* Make sure len is in multiples of sector size. */
+ /* XXX is this right? */
+ BUG_ON(len < btt->sector_size);
+ BUG_ON(len % btt->sector_size);
+
+ err = btt_do_bvec(btt, bvec.bv_page, len, bvec.bv_offset,
+ rw, iter.bi_sector);
+ if (err) {
+ dev_info(&btt->nd_btt->dev,
+ "io error in %s sector %lld, len %d,\n",
+ (rw == READ) ? "READ" : "WRITE",
+ (unsigned long long) iter.bi_sector, len);
+ goto out;
+ }
+ }
+
+out:
+ bio_endio(bio, err);
+}
+
+static int btt_rw_page(struct block_device *bdev, sector_t sector,
+ struct page *page, int rw)
+{
+ struct btt *btt = bdev->bd_disk->private_data;
+
+ btt_do_bvec(btt, page, PAGE_CACHE_SIZE, 0, rw, sector);
+ page_endio(page, rw & WRITE, 0);
+ return 0;
+}
+
+
+static int btt_getgeo(struct block_device *bd, struct hd_geometry *geo)
+{
+ /* some standard values */
+ geo->heads = 1 << 6;
+ geo->sectors = 1 << 5;
+ geo->cylinders = get_capacity(bd->bd_disk) >> 11;
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static const struct block_device_operations btt_fops = {
+ .owner = THIS_MODULE,
+ .rw_page = btt_rw_page,
+ .getgeo = btt_getgeo,
+};
+
+static int btt_blk_init(struct btt *btt)
+{
+ struct nd_btt *nd_btt = btt->nd_btt;
+ struct nd_namespace_common *ndns = nd_btt->ndns;
+
+ /* create a new disk and request queue for btt */
+ btt->btt_queue = blk_alloc_queue(GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!btt->btt_queue)
+ return -ENOMEM;
+
+ btt->btt_disk = alloc_disk(0);
+ if (!btt->btt_disk) {
+ blk_cleanup_queue(btt->btt_queue);
+ return -ENOMEM;
+ }
+
+ nvdimm_namespace_disk_name(ndns, btt->btt_disk->disk_name);
+ btt->btt_disk->driverfs_dev = &btt->nd_btt->dev;
+ btt->btt_disk->major = btt_major;
+ btt->btt_disk->first_minor = 0;
+ btt->btt_disk->fops = &btt_fops;
+ btt->btt_disk->private_data = btt;
+ btt->btt_disk->queue = btt->btt_queue;
+ btt->btt_disk->flags = GENHD_FL_EXT_DEVT;
+
+ blk_queue_make_request(btt->btt_queue, btt_make_request);
+ blk_queue_logical_block_size(btt->btt_queue, btt->sector_size);
+ blk_queue_max_hw_sectors(btt->btt_queue, UINT_MAX);
+ blk_queue_bounce_limit(btt->btt_queue, BLK_BOUNCE_ANY);
+ queue_flag_set_unlocked(QUEUE_FLAG_NONROT, btt->btt_queue);
+ btt->btt_queue->queuedata = btt;
+
+ set_capacity(btt->btt_disk,
+ btt->nlba * btt->sector_size >> SECTOR_SHIFT);
+ add_disk(btt->btt_disk);
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static void btt_blk_cleanup(struct btt *btt)
+{
+ del_gendisk(btt->btt_disk);
+ put_disk(btt->btt_disk);
+ blk_cleanup_queue(btt->btt_queue);
+}
+
+/**
+ * btt_init - initialize a block translation table for the given device
+ * @nd_btt: device with BTT geometry and backing device info
+ * @rawsize: raw size in bytes of the backing device
+ * @lbasize: lba size of the backing device
+ * @uuid: A uuid for the backing device - this is stored on media
+ * @maxlane: maximum number of parallel requests the device can handle
+ *
+ * Initialize a Block Translation Table on a backing device to provide
+ * single sector power fail atomicity.
+ *
+ * Context:
+ * Might sleep.
+ *
+ * Returns:
+ * Pointer to a new struct btt on success, NULL on failure.
+ */
+static struct btt *btt_init(struct nd_btt *nd_btt, unsigned long long rawsize,
+ u32 lbasize, u8 *uuid, struct nd_region *nd_region)
+{
+ int ret;
+ struct btt *btt;
+ struct device *dev = &nd_btt->dev;
+
+ btt = kzalloc(sizeof(struct btt), GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!btt)
+ return NULL;
+
+ btt->nd_btt = nd_btt;
+ btt->rawsize = rawsize;
+ btt->lbasize = lbasize;
+ btt->sector_size = ((lbasize >= 4096) ? 4096 : 512);
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&btt->arena_list);
+ mutex_init(&btt->init_lock);
+ btt->nd_region = nd_region;
+
+ ret = discover_arenas(btt);
+ if (ret) {
+ dev_err(dev, "init: error in arena_discover: %d\n", ret);
+ goto out_free;
+ }
+
+ if (btt->init_state != INIT_READY) {
+ btt->num_arenas = (rawsize / ARENA_MAX_SIZE) +
+ ((rawsize % ARENA_MAX_SIZE) ? 1 : 0);
+ dev_dbg(dev, "init: %d arenas for %llu rawsize\n",
+ btt->num_arenas, rawsize);
+
+ ret = create_arenas(btt);
+ if (ret) {
+ dev_info(dev, "init: create_arenas: %d\n", ret);
+ goto out_free;
+ }
+
+ ret = btt_meta_init(btt);
+ if (ret) {
+ dev_err(dev, "init: error in meta_init: %d\n", ret);
+ return NULL;
+ }
+ }
+
+ ret = btt_blk_init(btt);
+ if (ret) {
+ dev_err(dev, "init: error in blk_init: %d\n", ret);
+ goto out_free;
+ }
+
+ btt_debugfs_init(btt);
+
+ return btt;
+
+ out_free:
+ kfree(btt);
+ return NULL;
+}
+
+/**
+ * btt_fini - de-initialize a BTT
+ * @btt: the BTT handle that was generated by btt_init
+ *
+ * De-initialize a Block Translation Table on device removal
+ *
+ * Context:
+ * Might sleep.
+ */
+static void btt_fini(struct btt *btt)
+{
+ if (btt) {
+ btt_blk_cleanup(btt);
+ free_arenas(btt);
+ debugfs_remove_recursive(btt->debugfs_dir);
+ kfree(btt);
+ }
+}
+
+int nvdimm_namespace_attach_btt(struct nd_namespace_common *ndns)
+{
+ struct nd_btt *nd_btt = to_nd_btt(ndns->claim);
+ struct nd_region *nd_region;
+ struct btt *btt;
+ size_t rawsize;
+
+ if (!nd_btt->uuid || !nd_btt->ndns || !nd_btt->lbasize)
+ return -ENODEV;
+
+ rawsize = nvdimm_namespace_capacity(ndns) - SZ_4K;
+ if (rawsize < ARENA_MIN_SIZE) {
+ return -ENXIO;
+ }
+ nd_region = to_nd_region(nd_btt->dev.parent);
+ btt = btt_init(nd_btt, rawsize, nd_btt->lbasize, nd_btt->uuid,
+ nd_region);
+ if (!btt)
+ return -ENOMEM;
+ nd_btt->btt = btt;
+
+ return 0;
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(nvdimm_namespace_attach_btt);
+
+int nvdimm_namespace_detach_btt(struct nd_namespace_common *ndns)
+{
+ struct nd_btt *nd_btt = to_nd_btt(ndns->claim);
+ struct btt *btt = nd_btt->btt;
+
+ btt_fini(btt);
+ nd_btt->btt = NULL;
+
+ return 0;
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(nvdimm_namespace_detach_btt);
+
+static int __init nd_btt_init(void)
+{
+ int rc;
+
+ BUILD_BUG_ON(sizeof(struct btt_sb) != SZ_4K);
+
+ btt_major = register_blkdev(0, "btt");
+ if (btt_major < 0)
+ return btt_major;
+
+ debugfs_root = debugfs_create_dir("btt", NULL);
+ if (IS_ERR_OR_NULL(debugfs_root)) {
+ rc = -ENXIO;
+ goto err_debugfs;
+ }
+
+ return 0;
+
+ err_debugfs:
+ unregister_blkdev(btt_major, "btt");
+
+ return rc;
+}
+
+static void __exit nd_btt_exit(void)
+{
+ debugfs_remove_recursive(debugfs_root);
+ unregister_blkdev(btt_major, "btt");
+}
+
+MODULE_ALIAS_ND_DEVICE(ND_DEVICE_BTT);
+MODULE_AUTHOR("Vishal Verma <vishal.l.verma@linux.intel.com>");
+MODULE_LICENSE("GPL v2");
+module_init(nd_btt_init);
+module_exit(nd_btt_exit);

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