path: root/init
diff options
authorAlexander Potapenko <glider@google.com>2019-07-11 20:59:23 -0700
committerLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>2019-07-12 11:05:46 -0700
commit23a5c8cb7a91939cb08bc2dc880a7aa882bc6241 (patch)
treea8136c5d3f0a40f3c1a90cb65c7d29794235aea2 /init
parent6471384af2a6530696fc0203bafe4de41a23c9ef (diff)
mm: init: report memory auto-initialization features at boot time
Print the currently enabled stack and heap initialization modes. Stack initialization is enabled by a config flag, while heap initialization is configured at boot time with defaults being set in the config. It's more convenient for the user to have all information about these hardening measures in one place at boot, so the user can reason about the expected behavior of the running system. The possible options for stack are: - "all" for CONFIG_INIT_STACK_ALL; - "byref_all" for CONFIG_GCC_PLUGIN_STRUCTLEAK_BYREF_ALL; - "byref" for CONFIG_GCC_PLUGIN_STRUCTLEAK_BYREF; - "__user" for CONFIG_GCC_PLUGIN_STRUCTLEAK_USER; - "off" otherwise. Depending on the values of init_on_alloc and init_on_free boottime options we also report "heap alloc" and "heap free" as "on"/"off". In the init_on_free mode initializing pages at boot time may take a while, so print a notice about that as well. This depends on how much memory is installed, the memory bandwidth, etc. On a relatively modern x86 system, it takes about 0.75s/GB to wipe all memory: [ 0.418722] mem auto-init: stack:byref_all, heap alloc:off, heap free:on [ 0.419765] mem auto-init: clearing system memory may take some time... [ 12.376605] Memory: 16408564K/16776672K available (14339K kernel code, 1397K rwdata, 3756K rodata, 1636K init, 11460K bss, 368108K reserved, 0K cma-reserved) Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20190617151050.92663-3-glider@google.com Signed-off-by: Alexander Potapenko <glider@google.com> Suggested-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org> Acked-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com> Cc: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com> Cc: James Morris <jmorris@namei.org> Cc: Jann Horn <jannh@google.com> Cc: Kostya Serebryany <kcc@google.com> Cc: Laura Abbott <labbott@redhat.com> Cc: Mark Rutland <mark.rutland@arm.com> Cc: Masahiro Yamada <yamada.masahiro@socionext.com> Cc: Matthew Wilcox <willy@infradead.org> Cc: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com> Cc: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@infradead.org> Cc: Sandeep Patil <sspatil@android.com> Cc: "Serge E. Hallyn" <serge@hallyn.com> Cc: Souptick Joarder <jrdr.linux@gmail.com> Cc: Marco Elver <elver@google.com> Cc: Kaiwan N Billimoria <kaiwan@kaiwantech.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Diffstat (limited to 'init')
1 files changed, 24 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/init/main.c b/init/main.c
index 66a196c5e4c3..ff5803b0841c 100644
--- a/init/main.c
+++ b/init/main.c
@@ -520,6 +520,29 @@ static inline void initcall_debug_enable(void)
+/* Report memory auto-initialization states for this boot. */
+static void __init report_meminit(void)
+ const char *stack;
+ stack = "all";
+ stack = "byref_all";
+ stack = "byref";
+ stack = "__user";
+ else
+ stack = "off";
+ pr_info("mem auto-init: stack:%s, heap alloc:%s, heap free:%s\n",
+ stack, want_init_on_alloc(GFP_KERNEL) ? "on" : "off",
+ want_init_on_free() ? "on" : "off");
+ if (want_init_on_free())
+ pr_info("mem auto-init: clearing system memory may take some time...\n");
* Set up kernel memory allocators
@@ -530,6 +553,7 @@ static void __init mm_init(void)
* bigger than MAX_ORDER unless SPARSEMEM.
+ report_meminit();

Privacy Policy