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authorAxel Rasmussen <axelrasmussen@google.com>2021-05-04 18:35:36 -0700
committerLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>2021-05-05 11:27:22 -0700
commit7677f7fd8be76659cd2d0db8ff4093bbb51c20e5 (patch)
tree54ad879f7c68c5e1cfd7be8b25284dfea72b7a59 /init
parenteb14d4eefdc4f0051a63973124f431798e16a8b2 (diff)
userfaultfd: add minor fault registration mode
Patch series "userfaultfd: add minor fault handling", v9. Overview ======== This series adds a new userfaultfd feature, UFFD_FEATURE_MINOR_HUGETLBFS. When enabled (via the UFFDIO_API ioctl), this feature means that any hugetlbfs VMAs registered with UFFDIO_REGISTER_MODE_MISSING will *also* get events for "minor" faults. By "minor" fault, I mean the following situation: Let there exist two mappings (i.e., VMAs) to the same page(s) (shared memory). One of the mappings is registered with userfaultfd (in minor mode), and the other is not. Via the non-UFFD mapping, the underlying pages have already been allocated & filled with some contents. The UFFD mapping has not yet been faulted in; when it is touched for the first time, this results in what I'm calling a "minor" fault. As a concrete example, when working with hugetlbfs, we have huge_pte_none(), but find_lock_page() finds an existing page. We also add a new ioctl to resolve such faults: UFFDIO_CONTINUE. The idea is, userspace resolves the fault by either a) doing nothing if the contents are already correct, or b) updating the underlying contents using the second, non-UFFD mapping (via memcpy/memset or similar, or something fancier like RDMA, or etc...). In either case, userspace issues UFFDIO_CONTINUE to tell the kernel "I have ensured the page contents are correct, carry on setting up the mapping". Use Case ======== Consider the use case of VM live migration (e.g. under QEMU/KVM): 1. While a VM is still running, we copy the contents of its memory to a target machine. The pages are populated on the target by writing to the non-UFFD mapping, using the setup described above. The VM is still running (and therefore its memory is likely changing), so this may be repeated several times, until we decide the target is "up to date enough". 2. We pause the VM on the source, and start executing on the target machine. During this gap, the VM's user(s) will *see* a pause, so it is desirable to minimize this window. 3. Between the last time any page was copied from the source to the target, and when the VM was paused, the contents of that page may have changed - and therefore the copy we have on the target machine is out of date. Although we can keep track of which pages are out of date, for VMs with large amounts of memory, it is "slow" to transfer this information to the target machine. We want to resume execution before such a transfer would complete. 4. So, the guest begins executing on the target machine. The first time it touches its memory (via the UFFD-registered mapping), userspace wants to intercept this fault. Userspace checks whether or not the page is up to date, and if not, copies the updated page from the source machine, via the non-UFFD mapping. Finally, whether a copy was performed or not, userspace issues a UFFDIO_CONTINUE ioctl to tell the kernel "I have ensured the page contents are correct, carry on setting up the mapping". We don't have to do all of the final updates on-demand. The userfaultfd manager can, in the background, also copy over updated pages once it receives the map of which pages are up-to-date or not. Interaction with Existing APIs ============================== Because this is a feature, a registered VMA could potentially receive both missing and minor faults. I spent some time thinking through how the existing API interacts with the new feature: UFFDIO_CONTINUE cannot be used to resolve non-minor faults, as it does not allocate a new page. If UFFDIO_CONTINUE is used on a non-minor fault: - For non-shared memory or shmem, -EINVAL is returned. - For hugetlb, -EFAULT is returned. UFFDIO_COPY and UFFDIO_ZEROPAGE cannot be used to resolve minor faults. Without modifications, the existing codepath assumes a new page needs to be allocated. This is okay, since userspace must have a second non-UFFD-registered mapping anyway, thus there isn't much reason to want to use these in any case (just memcpy or memset or similar). - If UFFDIO_COPY is used on a minor fault, -EEXIST is returned. - If UFFDIO_ZEROPAGE is used on a minor fault, -EEXIST is returned (or -EINVAL in the case of hugetlb, as UFFDIO_ZEROPAGE is unsupported in any case). - UFFDIO_WRITEPROTECT simply doesn't work with shared memory, and returns -ENOENT in that case (regardless of the kind of fault). Future Work =========== This series only supports hugetlbfs. I have a second series in flight to support shmem as well, extending the functionality. This series is more mature than the shmem support at this point, and the functionality works fully on hugetlbfs, so this series can be merged first and then shmem support will follow. This patch (of 6): This feature allows userspace to intercept "minor" faults. By "minor" faults, I mean the following situation: Let there exist two mappings (i.e., VMAs) to the same page(s). One of the mappings is registered with userfaultfd (in minor mode), and the other is not. Via the non-UFFD mapping, the underlying pages have already been allocated & filled with some contents. The UFFD mapping has not yet been faulted in; when it is touched for the first time, this results in what I'm calling a "minor" fault. As a concrete example, when working with hugetlbfs, we have huge_pte_none(), but find_lock_page() finds an existing page. This commit adds the new registration mode, and sets the relevant flag on the VMAs being registered. In the hugetlb fault path, if we find that we have huge_pte_none(), but find_lock_page() does indeed find an existing page, then we have a "minor" fault, and if the VMA has the userfaultfd registration flag, we call into userfaultfd to handle it. This is implemented as a new registration mode, instead of an API feature. This is because the alternative implementation has significant drawbacks [1]. However, doing it this was requires we allocate a VM_* flag for the new registration mode. On 32-bit systems, there are no unused bits, so this feature is only supported on architectures with CONFIG_ARCH_USES_HIGH_VMA_FLAGS. When attempting to register a VMA in MINOR mode on 32-bit architectures, we return -EINVAL. [1] https://lore.kernel.org/patchwork/patch/1380226/ [peterx@redhat.com: fix minor fault page leak] Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20210322175132.36659-1-peterx@redhat.com Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20210301222728.176417-1-axelrasmussen@google.com Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20210301222728.176417-2-axelrasmussen@google.com Signed-off-by: Axel Rasmussen <axelrasmussen@google.com> Reviewed-by: Peter Xu <peterx@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Mike Kravetz <mike.kravetz@oracle.com> Cc: Alexander Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk> Cc: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Anshuman Khandual <anshuman.khandual@arm.com> Cc: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com> Cc: Chinwen Chang <chinwen.chang@mediatek.com> Cc: Huang Ying <ying.huang@intel.com> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com> Cc: Jann Horn <jannh@google.com> Cc: Jerome Glisse <jglisse@redhat.com> Cc: Lokesh Gidra <lokeshgidra@google.com> Cc: "Matthew Wilcox (Oracle)" <willy@infradead.org> Cc: Michael Ellerman <mpe@ellerman.id.au> Cc: "Michal Koutn" <mkoutny@suse.com> Cc: Michel Lespinasse <walken@google.com> Cc: Mike Rapoport <rppt@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: Nicholas Piggin <npiggin@gmail.com> Cc: Peter Xu <peterx@redhat.com> Cc: Shaohua Li <shli@fb.com> Cc: Shawn Anastasio <shawn@anastas.io> Cc: Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org> Cc: Steven Price <steven.price@arm.com> Cc: Vlastimil Babka <vbabka@suse.cz> Cc: Adam Ruprecht <ruprecht@google.com> Cc: Axel Rasmussen <axelrasmussen@google.com> Cc: Cannon Matthews <cannonmatthews@google.com> Cc: "Dr . David Alan Gilbert" <dgilbert@redhat.com> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Cc: Mina Almasry <almasrymina@google.com> Cc: Oliver Upton <oupton@google.com> Cc: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill@shutemov.name> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Diffstat (limited to 'init')
-rw-r--r--init/Kconfig5
1 files changed, 5 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/init/Kconfig b/init/Kconfig
index 9acb7762e971..1413413fcb9f 100644
--- a/init/Kconfig
+++ b/init/Kconfig
@@ -1644,6 +1644,11 @@ config HAVE_ARCH_USERFAULTFD_WP
help
Arch has userfaultfd write protection support
+config HAVE_ARCH_USERFAULTFD_MINOR
+ bool
+ help
+ Arch has userfaultfd minor fault support
+
config MEMBARRIER
bool "Enable membarrier() system call" if EXPERT
default y

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