path: root/kernel/module.c
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authorSami Tolvanen <samitolvanen@google.com>2021-04-08 11:28:26 -0700
committerKees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>2021-04-08 16:04:20 -0700
commitcf68fffb66d60d96209446bfc4a15291dc5a5d41 (patch)
tree5d5e7905ef9b3d725bcafff40174ba98d959992a /kernel/module.c
parente49d033bddf5b565044e2abe4241353959bc9120 (diff)
add support for Clang CFI
This change adds support for Clang’s forward-edge Control Flow Integrity (CFI) checking. With CONFIG_CFI_CLANG, the compiler injects a runtime check before each indirect function call to ensure the target is a valid function with the correct static type. This restricts possible call targets and makes it more difficult for an attacker to exploit bugs that allow the modification of stored function pointers. For more details, see: https://clang.llvm.org/docs/ControlFlowIntegrity.html Clang requires CONFIG_LTO_CLANG to be enabled with CFI to gain visibility to possible call targets. Kernel modules are supported with Clang’s cross-DSO CFI mode, which allows checking between independently compiled components. With CFI enabled, the compiler injects a __cfi_check() function into the kernel and each module for validating local call targets. For cross-module calls that cannot be validated locally, the compiler calls the global __cfi_slowpath_diag() function, which determines the target module and calls the correct __cfi_check() function. This patch includes a slowpath implementation that uses __module_address() to resolve call targets, and with CONFIG_CFI_CLANG_SHADOW enabled, a shadow map that speeds up module look-ups by ~3x. Clang implements indirect call checking using jump tables and offers two methods of generating them. With canonical jump tables, the compiler renames each address-taken function to <function>.cfi and points the original symbol to a jump table entry, which passes __cfi_check() validation. This isn’t compatible with stand-alone assembly code, which the compiler doesn’t instrument, and would result in indirect calls to assembly code to fail. Therefore, we default to using non-canonical jump tables instead, where the compiler generates a local jump table entry <function>.cfi_jt for each address-taken function, and replaces all references to the function with the address of the jump table entry. Note that because non-canonical jump table addresses are local to each component, they break cross-module function address equality. Specifically, the address of a global function will be different in each module, as it's replaced with the address of a local jump table entry. If this address is passed to a different module, it won’t match the address of the same function taken there. This may break code that relies on comparing addresses passed from other components. CFI checking can be disabled in a function with the __nocfi attribute. Additionally, CFI can be disabled for an entire compilation unit by filtering out CC_FLAGS_CFI. By default, CFI failures result in a kernel panic to stop a potential exploit. CONFIG_CFI_PERMISSIVE enables a permissive mode, where the kernel prints out a rate-limited warning instead, and allows execution to continue. This option is helpful for locating type mismatches, but should only be enabled during development. Signed-off-by: Sami Tolvanen <samitolvanen@google.com> Reviewed-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org> Tested-by: Nathan Chancellor <nathan@kernel.org> Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org> Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20210408182843.1754385-2-samitolvanen@google.com
Diffstat (limited to 'kernel/module.c')
1 files changed, 43 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/kernel/module.c b/kernel/module.c
index 30479355ab85..20fb004e7d8d 100644
--- a/kernel/module.c
+++ b/kernel/module.c
@@ -2146,6 +2146,8 @@ void __weak module_arch_freeing_init(struct module *mod)
+static void cfi_cleanup(struct module *mod);
/* Free a module, remove from lists, etc. */
static void free_module(struct module *mod)
@@ -2187,6 +2189,9 @@ static void free_module(struct module *mod)
+ /* Clean up CFI for the module. */
+ cfi_cleanup(mod);
/* This may be empty, but that's OK */
@@ -3866,6 +3871,8 @@ static int unknown_module_param_cb(char *param, char *val, const char *modname,
return 0;
+static void cfi_init(struct module *mod);
* Allocate and load the module: note that size of section 0 is always
* zero, and we rely on this for optional sections.
@@ -3997,6 +4004,9 @@ static int load_module(struct load_info *info, const char __user *uargs,
+ /* Setup CFI for the module. */
+ cfi_init(mod);
/* Now copy in args */
mod->args = strndup_user(uargs, ~0UL >> 1);
if (IS_ERR(mod->args)) {
@@ -4070,6 +4080,7 @@ static int load_module(struct load_info *info, const char __user *uargs,
+ cfi_cleanup(mod);
@@ -4415,6 +4426,38 @@ int module_kallsyms_on_each_symbol(int (*fn)(void *, const char *,
#endif /* CONFIG_KALLSYMS */
+static void cfi_init(struct module *mod)
+ initcall_t *init;
+ exitcall_t *exit;
+ rcu_read_lock_sched();
+ mod->cfi_check = (cfi_check_fn)
+ find_kallsyms_symbol_value(mod, "__cfi_check");
+ init = (initcall_t *)
+ find_kallsyms_symbol_value(mod, "__cfi_jt_init_module");
+ exit = (exitcall_t *)
+ find_kallsyms_symbol_value(mod, "__cfi_jt_cleanup_module");
+ rcu_read_unlock_sched();
+ /* Fix init/exit functions to point to the CFI jump table */
+ if (init)
+ mod->init = *init;
+ if (exit)
+ mod->exit = *exit;
+ cfi_module_add(mod, module_addr_min);
+static void cfi_cleanup(struct module *mod)
+ cfi_module_remove(mod, module_addr_min);
/* Maximum number of characters written by module_flags() */

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